Brett Youngerman, MD, MS, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, discusses the latest developments in epilepsy treatment, comparing the former standard of open surgery to new treatments such as laser ablation therapy. Dr Youngerman highlights the advantages of laser ablation for deep brain targets and addresses newer methods such as neuromodulation that treat epilepsy without surgery or ablation involved. Despite the existing limitations in research surrounding neuromodulation, it is still considered a good alternative in certain circumstances. Dr Youngerman explores responsive, deep brain, and vagal nerve stimulation as the different approaches to neuromodulation and provides insight into their uses as minimally invasive therapies for epilepsy, in addition to promising techniques such as focused ultrasound. This interview took place at the American Academy of Neurology 2022 Congress in Seattle, WA.