Neurofilament light chain (NfL) has been identified as a sensitive but non-specific blood-based biomarker of neuroaxonal damage. Steffen Tiedt, PhD, Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research (ISD), Munich, Germany, discusses the utility of NfL as a blood-based biomarker in stroke. A systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the temporal patterning of NfL showed that blood NfL levels vary significantly across three distinct periods of acute, subacute, and chronic stroke, with a steep peak in the early subacute period around seven days after stroke or even later. These results suggest that NfL is not a good marker for early neuron injury, but it is very accurate in determining the extent of neuronal damage. Evidence indicates that NfL holds particular promise for utility as a surrogate outcome measure for trials investigating stroke therapeutics. This interview took place during the Federation of European Neuroscience Societies (FENS) 2022 Forum in Paris, France.