Nicola De Stefano, MD, PhD, University of Siena, Siena, Italy, discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in assessing patient responses to treatment in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Whilst typical MRI techniques can measure residual inflammation, there is a need to measure the impact of neurodegeneration in patients. Monitoring slowly expanding lesions can be a suitable indicator of smoldering MS and may accurately reflect the extent of grey matter atrophy in progressive MS. Slowing grey matter atrophy will subsequently benefit patients with MS, and hence should be measured in clinical trials. This interview was conducted during the 2022 World Congress on Controversies in Neurology (CONy) meeting.