Antonina Roll-Mecak, PhD, Unit of Cell Biology and Biophysics, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD, shares the findings of a series of investigations looking into the roles of spastin and katanin in the generation and organization of microtubule networks in neurons. Observations of decreased microtubule numbers and disorganized polymers induced by the loss of severing enzymes led to questions surrounding their role. Investigations revealed that the removal of tubulin subunits along the length of the polymer triggers constant repair with new soluble tubulin. The healing at nanodamaged sites strengthens microtubules and halts depolymerization at repair sites, leading to an amplification of microtubule numbers and mass. This interview took place during the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) 2021 Annual Meeting.